Dr. Oliver Carter is a senior lecturer in media and cultural theory at the Birmingham Centre for Media and Cultural Research, Birmingham City University. His research focuses on alternative economies of cultural production; informal forms of industry that are often removed from a formal cultural industries discourse. He is the author of the forthcoming monograph Making European Cult Cinema: Fan Enterprise in an Alternative Economy, published in 2018 by Amsterdam University Press. He is currently working on his latest book, which investigates the development of the British hardcore pornography business. The research for this publication informs the documentary Hardcore Guaranteed: The Mike Freeman Story (Simon Fletcher 2018), and the television series Sexposed (Simon Fletcher, 2018).